- In general, sex led to greater recall for ads (d = .38).
- The effect was greater for congruent products (e.g., using sex to sell lingerie) (d = .45).
- But it was entirely reversed for incongruent products (e.g., using sex to sell laptops) (d = -.46).
- However, even in congruent cases, just the ads were remembered. The brands themselves were no more likely to be remembered (d = .09).
- In general, attitudes towards the sexual ads were mostly neutral (d = -.07).
- But this was only true when men and women were averaged together. While men had moderately positive views of sexual ads (d =.27), women had stronger negative views of them (d = -.38).
- In terms of actually selling the product, sexual advertising had no effect (d = .01).
- But when the sexual appeal and product were incongruent, sex actually led to decreased sales (d = -.24).
While in a formal speaking context, these specific findings are moot—using sex to sell is usually inappropriate in such contexts—there are still several important lessons we can take from this research.
First, it underscores the importance of congruence. In The Science of Speaking, I repeatedly note that it’s important to make sure all aspects of your speech go together, whether it’s matching your facial expressions and tone of voice to your content, making sure your visual aids all look cohesive, or making sure your persuasive appeals are all congruent. This research intensifies all of these points by showing that incongruence can not only be ineffective, it can actually have a significant negative effect, in this case leading to lower recall and purchase intentions.
Second, beware “seductive details.” In The Science of Speaking, I review research showing that when interesting but irrelevant details are added in order to spice something up, these details can actually draw attention away from the main message, resulting in the opposite of the intended effect—in that case, learning, and in this case, sales.
Finally, it’s always important to consider your audience. Just as in this case, there were totally different effects for men and women, your appeals may have totally different effects on different audiences, and a strategy that works well for one may totally flop with another. Rather than designing general appeals that you think will work for everyone, you want them to be tailored to your audience as much as possible.