In yesterday’s blog post, we saw that public speaking doesn’t require genius—instead, it’s a skill that anyone can develop. This is an idea that deserves further explanation.
To elaborate on this idea, here is an excerpt on the power of mindsets from my first book (with Richard Powers), Waltzing: A Manual for Dancing and Living. Although it was written in the context of social dancing, it is equally applicable to public speaking.
In sharing the lessons of this book with the world, there is one particular obstacle that we often run into. We’ll be talking with someone about the benefits of dancing, when they’ll stop us and say, “I admire what you’re doing. But I’m sorry to tell you, I can’t dance!”
Ironically, this statement is a perfect illustration of one of the potentially life-changing ideas we want to share with you: the power of holding different mindsets.
Fixed vs. Growth Mindsets
The person who says to us, “I can’t dance,” is revealing that they hold what Stanford psychologist Carol Dweck calls a fixed mindset.
People with fixed mindsets believe that certain kinds of abilities—whether the logical and linguistic abilities required to pass exams, or the physical, musical, and interpersonal abilities required for social dancing—are fixed from birth.
“You’re either smart or you’re dumb, and you either can dance or you can’t.”
Not everyone believes this, however. Those who hold a growth mindset believe that these abilities are not entirely fixed, but rather that they can change and grow. According to those who hold a growth mindset, these abilities can, and must, be developed.
Performance vs. Mastery Goals
As a result of these differing beliefs about ability, people with different mindsets tend to adopt different goals.
People who believe their abilities are fixed tend to adopt a goal of performance, focusing on demonstrating their fixed abilities by showing off and outperforming others.
Those who believe their abilities can grow, on the other hand, tend to adopt a goal of mastery, focusing on developing their growing abilities by taking on new challenges and learning.
As explained in Mindset, Dweck’s book summarizing her decades of research on the subject, a fixed mindset leads to a desire to look smart. Therefore, someone with a fixed mindset has the tendency to avoid challenges, to give up easily, to see effort as fruitless, to ignore useful negative feedback, and to feel threatened by the success of others. As a result, those with a fixed mindset often plateau early and achieve less than their full potential.
A growth mindset, on the other hand, leads to a desire to learn. Therefore, someone with a growth mindset has the tendency to embrace challenges, to persist in the face of setbacks, to see effort as the path to mastery, to learn from criticism, and to find lessons and inspiration in the success of others. As a result, those with a growth mindset tend to reach ever-higher levels of achievement.
In this way, the mindsets become self-fulling prophecies: those with fixed mindsets see their abilities plateau, and those with growth mindsets see their abilities grow.
There are two kinds of people. One kind you can tell just by looking at them as what point they congealed into their final selves. It might be a very nice self, but you know you can expect no more surprises from it. Whereas the other kind keeps moving, changing. … They are fluid. They keep moving forward and making new trysts with life, and the motion of it keeps them young. In my opinion, they are the only people who are still alive. You must be constantly on your guard against congealing.
—Ursula Devane, The Finishing School
Developing a Growth Mindset
Fortunately, as Dweck and her colleagues have demonstrated in studies of a wide range of abilities—in school, business, sports, and art—a growth mindset can be learned and taught.
People who are introduced to the growth mindset idea tend to shift from fixed to growth mindsets, and as a result, dramatically improve their abilities.
Likewise, people who are introduced to environments that reinforce mastery are more likely to adopt a growth mindset with mastery goals, and challenge themselves to greater heights. Environments that reinforce mastery encourage self-direction and intellectual risk-taking and discourage evaluation and competition. The social dance hall is a great example.
Importantly, these shifts in mindset tend to persist, even when people leave these mastery environments and return to their regular working environments. This shows once again that what we learn on the dance floor can sneak home with us to improve the rest of our lives.
I Can’t Dance … Yet
When potential social dancers tell us they can’t dance, what they really mean to say is that they can’t dance yet. The only problem is that they forget the yet.
And while you, reader of Waltzing, may not have this particular problem, we hope that this greater understanding of mindsets will help convince your friends who “can’t dance” to join you. We also hope that this will help you apply your growth mindset universally, pursuing all of the challenges that interest you, whether in painting, science, or public speaking.